Occupational Asthma Reference

Masson P, Nachon F, Cholinesterase reactivators and bioscavengers for pre- and post-exposure treatments of organophosphorus poisoning, J Neurochem, 2017;10.1111/jn:,

Keywords: cholinesterase poisoning, treatment

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Abstract

Organophosphorus agents (OPs) irreversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) causing a major cholinergic syndrome. The medical counter-measures of OP poisoning have not
evolved for the last 30 years with carbamates for pretreatment, pyridinium oximes-based AChE reactivators, antimuscarinic drugs and neuroprotective benzodiazepines for postexposure treatment. These drugs ensure protection of peripheral nervous system and mitigate acute effects of OP lethal doses. However, they have significant limitations. Pyridostigmine and oximes do not protect/reactivate central AChE. Oximes poorly reactivate AChE inhibited by phosphoramidates. In addition, current neuroprotectants do not protect the central nervous system shortly after the onset of seizures when brain damage becomes irreversible. New therapeutic approaches for pre- and post-exposure treatments involve detoxification of OP molecules before they reach their molecular targets by administrating catalytic bioscavengers, among them phosphotriesterases are the most promising. Novel generation of broad spectrum reactivators are designed for
crossing the blood–brain barrier and reactivate central AChE.

Plain text: Organophosphorus agents (OPs) irreversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) causing a major cholinergic syndrome. The medical counter-measures of OP poisoning have not evolved for the last 30 years with carbamates for pretreatment, pyridinium oximes-based AChE reactivators, antimuscarinic drugs and neuroprotective benzodiazepines for postexposure treatment. These drugs ensure protection of peripheral nervous system and mitigate acute effects of OP lethal doses. However, they have significant limitations. Pyridostigmine and oximes do not protect/reactivate central AChE. Oximes poorly reactivate AChE inhibited by phosphoramidates. In addition, current neuroprotectants do not protect the central nervous system shortly after the onset of seizures when brain damage becomes irreversible. New therapeutic approaches for pre- and post-exposure treatments involve detoxification of OP molecules before they reach their molecular targets by administrating catalytic bioscavengers, among them phosphotriesterases are the most promising. Novel generation of broad spectrum reactivators are designed for crossing the blood-brain barrier and reactivate central AChE.

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