What are the risk factors for developing occupational asthma?

The following references have been associated with this question by users of this website. They do not form part of the BOHRF occupational asthma guidelines.

burgeps Caldeira 2006 Low level education, and exposure to chemicals and paints main risk factors. To a lesser extent exposure to dusts, vapours, humidity or gasses. No specific industries or exposures mentioned.
burgeps Casset 2006 Low level formaldehyde shown to enhance reactions to allergen in sensitised patients
burgeps Venables 1989 The patient with sensitisation to an occupational agent can be sensitised by antigen carried home on the spouse from the spouses workplace. The paper cites examples from laboratory animals and platinum salts
burgeps Riu 2007 This paper is only about rhinitis, but shows increased risks in the first few months of exposure to LMW agents such as senstising chemicals, isocyanates, drugs, cleaning products, woods and metals; and to HMW agents such as animals, plants, arthropods, mites, enzymes, latex, flour. Peak incidence months 2-9
burgeps Larsen 2007 Smoking increased the risk x 2, atopy increased sensitisation but not disease. No obvious relationship between measured exposure and disease, but better processes reduced incidence. A study of manufacturers of a mixed (and unspecified) group of enzymes studied prospectively. The incidence of sensitisation and disease was measured for the first 3 years of exposure only. The incidence for sensitisation was 0.13/person year at risk and for disease (asthma, rhinitis or urticaria) 0.03/person year at risk. There was no relationship betweem measured exposure and incidence, but incidence reduced over time (1970-2002), during which time more atopics were employed. Atopy was a risk factor for sensitisation but not disease, smoking was a risk factor for disease and sensitisation (x2). It is likely that the air measurement did not fully represent exposures, and that the initial exclusion of atopics was a confouding factor. Within the first 3 years 10-5% developed disease (decreasing over time); of those with disease 55% had asthma.
mala Ueda 1992
burgeps Patiwael 2010 smoking and atopy risk factors for oa and or. Odds ratio for OA and smoking 11.85 and atopy 5.03
burgeps Nicholson 2010 The review identifies exposure levels and atopy as the main risk factors
burgeps Fishwick 2011 Not really about risk factors, but showa less asthma and rhinitis in workers who remember been told of the hazards of flour on health
burgeps Lunt 2011 not really about risk factors, but some evidence that education reduces exposures

Oasys and occupational asthma smoke logo